Hundred Years' War

Hundred Years' War
   The Hundred Years' War between France and England lasted from 1337 to 1453. It was caused above all by the rivalry between King philip vi of France and King Edward III of England who, upon the death of King Charles iv, the last Capetian in the direct line without an heir, claimed the French Crown because he was the son of isabelle, daughter of King Philip the Fair. During the reign of Philip VI, the French were defeated at Crécy (1346) and lost Calais (1347). Under jean ii, the English Black Prince Edward triumphed at Poitiers (1356); France, weakened because of the uprisings in Paris (see Etienne marcel) and devastated by the jacquerie, was obliged to sign the disastrous Treaty of Brétigny (1360); as a result, a fourth of Philippe the Fair's kingdom was lost. King charles v and Bertrand du gueslin rectified the situation, and the English could occupy only Calais and Guyenne. Under King charles vi, the civil war between the Burgundians and Armagnacs, as well as Charles's mistakes, allowed the English, who won the battle of Agincourt (1415), to again gain the upper hand and impose, with the complicity of isabeau of bavaria, the shameful Treaty of Troyes (1420), concluded with the English, which gave the French crown to King Henry V. Under King charles vii, joan of arc revived French patriotism; the heroine delivered orléans and had the king crowned at Reims, but she was taken at Compiègne and burned at Rouen (1431). Meanwhile, the initiative passed to the French, and, thanks to brave leadership (jean xantrailles, jean dunois, la hire), the English were defeated at Formigny (1450) and Castillon (1453), then driven from the kingdom except for Calais, which they held until 1558. The events of the Hundred Years' War comprise the first manifestations of French nationalism.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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